Explain to your doctor that serum uric acid measurements are critical both to the diagnosis and the management of gout. They are cheap may prevent lots of doctor visits, complications from drug side effects and so forth in the long run. And because there is noise in the test results, especially when gout symptoms are suspected, this test should be repeated several times every few weeks or months. If he doesn’t want to listen, get another doctor/insurance and/or complain to the higher ups. If that sounds like too much trouble, just get the blood tests done at your own expense (they shouldn’t be expensive but you might want to shop around for an affordable lab).
It’s not clear at this stage you even have gout. If you do, my wild guess would be that the pain in your toe wasn’t gout at first but ended up triggering gout.
Being careful with your diet until you know how much uric acid there is in your blood may be prudent considering you have gout in the family. If your current iron supplement isn’t helping much with your iron, try heme iron instead (you might possibly be able to quit meat entierly if you take this).
Colchicine and indomethacin do not help much with crystals. They are mainly used to deal with acute symptoms and to prevent inflammation from causing lasting damage. It doesn’t sound like you are at risk of lasting damage but you might want to try these drugs if the mobility of your joint remains impaired or if the pain doesn’t go away completely after a while.
Definitely hang on to the pills and don’t travel without them because you’ll need them badly if you get a textbook gout attack. In case you feel unexplained (no injury or something) joint pain getting worse and worse over the course of a few hours and notice swelling and/or redness, my advice is not to delay taking these drugs.