Wait until you have ascertained how much uric acid there is in your blood to worry about allopurinol.
Ibuprofen and similar drugs reduce inflammation and therefore pain. They are the most straightforward way to quickly stop a gout flare, provided you can tolerate this class of drug.
Colchicine is more complicated to use. It does not provide quick relief but basically makes gouty episodes weaker and shorter. It could also prevent the formation of uric acid crystals but allopurinol is much more effective in that respect anyway. You don’t have to use colchicine but it could allow you to reduce your intake of ibuprofen-type drugs. If a reasonable amount of ibuprofen is enough to make your flares go away, there’s little point in taking colchicine at the same time but you could still take a small amount every day for a few weeks to reduce the likelihood of a serious gout attacks.
So far as I can tell, colchicine is pretty safe as long as you only take small amounts for a limited amount of time. It has obvious side effects which typically prevent people from abusing it. Ibuprofen-type drugs may seem harmless in contrast but it has side effects which often remain unnoticed and prolonged use can potentially be deadly even if you do not exceed the recommended dose.
The matter of keeping the joint mobile is also complicated. But hopefully your gout isn’t bad enough that you have to worry about this.
Finally, inflammation can cause damage but doesn’t do so in most cases (or at least the damage is hardly noticeable). Gout can cause lasting damage separately from inflammation anyway so you should not delay managing the amount of uric acid in your system if you have gout even if you can suppress symptoms with anti-inflammatories.
I doubt CBD oil would be competitive with proper anti-inflammatory drugs. Considering how bad gout can get if you allow it to develop, giving such remedies a try may not be as harmless as it seems. But really, I have no idea how effective it is. More importantly, I don’t know what the side-effects might be.
I should also warn you against painkillers more generally and acetaminphen/paracetamol in particular. You can of course take painkillers but you should not use them instead of proper anti-inflammatories or to delay proper treatment.